Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi born of a Bania (Vaishya or trading caste) family at Porbunder, Kathiawar, the youngest of the three sons of Karamchand alias Kaba Gandhi, Prime Minister successively in Porbunder, Rajkot and Vankaner States, and his fourth wife Putlibai
Goes to Rajkot with parents; attends primary school there till twelfth year; is betrothed to Kasturbai, daughter of Gokuldas Makanji, merchant.
Enters High School at Rajkot
Takes to meat-eating in secret, but abandons habit after about a year to avoid deceiving his parents.
Father dies, aged 63.
Passes Matriculation examination; joins Samaldas College at Bhavnagar (Kathiawar), but gives up studies at close of first term.
Sails for England.
Lives on vegetarian diet. Takes lessons in dancing and music for a short time, thinking they are necessary parts of a gentleman’s equipment.
Reads books on simple living and decides to reduce expenses by half; studies religious literature; reads Gita for first time and is deeply impressed
Cultivates contacts with vegetarian movement; for short while conducts vegetarian club.
Passes London Matric.
Joins Vegetarian Society.
Called to the Bar.
Sails for India.
Applies for admission to Bombay High Court.
Struggles with legal practice at Rajkot and Bombay; later settles down at former place as legal draftsman.
Leaves for South Africa, being engaged by a Muslim firm for legal work.
Experiences colour bar in various forms; decides to remain and fight race prejudice.
Founds Natal Indian Congress.
Enrolled as Advocate of Supreme Court of Natal, being first Indian to be so enrolled.
Studies religious literature including the Bible, he Koran and Tolstoy’s The Kingdom of God is Within You.
Gets more committed to South African Indian cause. Issues The Indian Franchise: An Appeal to Every Briton in South Africa.
Returns to India and starts agitation on behalf of South African Indians.
Publishes The Green Pamphlet at Rajkot.
Tours Bombay, Madras, Poona and Calcutta educating Indians in regard to grievances of South African Indians.
Sails for South Africa with wife and children.
Mobbed on landing at Durban by crowd excited by reports of his speeches in India on conditions of indentured Indian labour in South Africa.
Declines to prosecute assailants.
Submits long memorial to Chamberlain, Secretary of State for Colonies, regarding landing incidents, background.
Carries on programme of petitioning local and Imperial authorities, as well as of communicating with British and Indian public men regarding discriminatory laws.
Represents to Indian National Congress, Colonial and Imperial authorities, against Locations and restrictions on Indians trading rights.
Raises Indian Ambulance Corps in Boer War, which goes into action and is mentioned in dispatches; awarded war medal.
Sends Dadabhai Naroroji draft resolution on South African Indian problem for Congress session.
Sails for India.
Reaches Rajkot via Porbunder.
Moves resolution on South Africa at Congress.
Stays for a month with Gokhale at Calcutta.
Returns to Rajkot, settees down to practise.
Shifts to and sets up practice at Bombay.
Is called to South Africa to champion Indians cause against anti-Asiatic legislation in Transvaal.
Arrives in Durban: leads delegation to Chamberlain.
Enrolled as Attorney of Supreme Court of Transvaal; founds Transvaal British Indian Association.
Sends weekly statements regarding situation to Dadabhai Naoroji.
Indian Opinion commences publication.
Reads Ruskin’s Unto This Last : founds Phoenix Settlement near Durban (Natal); organizes hospita during outbreak of plague in Johannesburg; writes series of articles in Gujarati on dietetics which are later translated into English and published under the title Guide to Health.
Opposes Bengal Partition, supports boycott of British goods. During Gokhale Lajpat Rai deputation to Britain, appeals to Colonial statesmen to treat India, 'an integral part of the Empire', with consideration.
Support 'home rule' for India 'I the name of justice and for good of humanity'.
Writes to brother, Lakshimidas, declaring disinterestedness in worldly possessions.
Raises Indian Stretcher-bearer Corps in Zulu Rebellion; takes vow of brahmacharya for life.
Addresses mass meeting of Indians at Johannesburg, which takes oath of passive resistance against newly promulgated Transvaal Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance.
In England on deputation to present Indians’ case to Colonial Secretary.
Returns to South Africa
Writes series of 8 articles in Gujarati on "Ethical Religion", published weekly in Indian Opinion and later, as a book.
Asiatic Registration Act passed in Transvaal Parliament. Indians hold protest meetings.
Sees Smuts at Pretoria, acquaints him with resolutions adopted at mass meetings. Pledges, in Indain Opinion, opposition to 'Black Act'.
Writes to Smuts criticsing Registration Act, suggesting amendments.
Passive resistance, picketing of Permit Offices; defends passive resisters in court.
Smuts decides to prosecute Gandhiji.
Asks Government for suspension of Registration Act, offers voluntary registration.
Adopts word : 'Satyagraha' in place of 'Passive Resistance'.
Sentenced to 2 months' imprisonment for failure to leave Transvaal.
Agrees to settlement on basis of voluntary registration, if Registration Act is repealed.
Summoned to see General Smuts at Pretoria and released, on reaching a compromise.
Nearly killed by Pathans who regard the compromise, under which Indians are expected to give their finger-prints voluntarily, as a betrayal of Indian interest; refuses to prosecute his assailants.
Negotiates with Smuts for fulfilment of promise of repeal of Act which Smuts denies.
Correspondence with Smuts released; Indians in mass meeting decide to refuse thumb impressions and burn registration certificates.
Declares use of violence 'harmful, even unseless to uproot British rule' in India.
Appeals to Smuts to repeal 'Black Act'.Registation certificates burnt at meetings; passive resistance resumed.
Royal assent is given to amended Registration Act.
Smuts refuses Indian terms for settlement.
Arrested and sentenced to 2 months rigorous imprisonment.
Released from Volksrust Gaol
Indian National Congress adopts resolution on South Africa, criticizing the harsh, humiliating and cruel treatment of British Indians in South Africa as injurious to British Empire.
Arrested at Volksrust for failing to produce registration certificate; on deportation, returned and is re-arrested, but released on bail.
Writes to Press calling on Indians to prepare for final phase of struggle.
Arrested at Volksrust; sentenced to 3 months.
Transferred to Pretoria Central Gaol.
Leaves with Haji Habib, on deputation to England to represent Indian case.
Arrives in London.
With the assistance of Lord Ampthill, works ceaselessly to educate influential British leaders, the public, and to move Imperial authorities.
Writes to Tolstoy regarding Passive Resistance movement.
The Times reports failure of Gandhi Government negotiations on Transvaal laws.
Replies to Tolstoy, sends his biography by Doke.
Leaves England for South Africa.
Writes Hind Swaraj on board "s. s. Kildonan Castle".
Reaches South Africa.
Congress at Lahore adopts resolution praising Indians struggle in South Africa, urging ban on indenture.
Sends Tolstoy copy of Indian Home Rule, seeks comment.
Tolstoy replies: question of Passive Resistance of greatest importance not only for India but for humanity.
Founds Tolstoy Farm.
Pays memorial tribute to Tolstoy.
Communicates with Smuts regarding amendments to Immigrants' Restriction Bill; latter assures; no colour bar taint in laws.
Interviews Smuts at Capetown.
Smuts agrees to assurances demanded by Indians in reciprocation of suspension of Passive Resistance movement.
Meets Smuts: 'Provisional Settlement' arrived on Smuts' promise of repeal of Asiastic Registration and Immigrants' Restriction Acts.
Pledges loyalty to King-Emperor on coronation.
Invites Gokhale to South Africa.
Commends Gokhale's attempts for abolition of indenture system.
Phoenix Trust is set up.
Accompanies Gokhale, on tour of South Africa, Laurence Marques, Mozambique and Zanzibar.
Gives up European dress and milk and restricts himself to diet of fresh and dried fruit.
Pays memorial tribute to Tolstoy.
Refers in Indian Opinion to the possibility of return home to India by mid-year.
Indian marriages in South Africa invalidated by Searle's Supreme Court judgment.
Indians in mass meeting protest against Searle judgment.
In Indian Opinion draws attention to new Immigration Bill's failure to fulfill terms of Provisional Settlement of 1911. Kasturba decides to join Passive Resistance struggle.
Warns Government of certainty of revival of movement if it fails to grant promised relief.
Idea of return to India deferred in view of stringent application of discriminatory laws and likely resumption of satyagraha.
Expresses readiness for negotiations.
Announces negotiations "proved abortive".
Passive Resistance is revived.
Kasturba is arrested.
Visits Newcastle; urges indentured Indians to cease work till repeal of @£ 3 tax.
3000 miners strike.
Proposes 'March' into Transvaal.
'March' from Newcastle begins.
Announces 'March' into Transvaal to court arrest.
Telephones Smuts seeking assurance of repeal of £3 tax.
Leads 'Great March'.
At Volksrust, released on bail; rejoin Marchers.
Arrested at Standerton; released on recognizance; 'March' continues.
Arrested at Teakworth, taken to Balfour.
Takes 'one meal a day' pledge till repeal of tax.
Sentence, at Dundee, to 9 months rigorous imprisonment.
Removed to Volksrust gaol.
Sentenced to 3 months on fresh count at Volksrust.
Released unconditionally; from time of release till settlement take only one meal a day and puts on indentured labourer's dress.
Interviews Smuts, submits proposals.
Suspends satyagraha following agreement with Smuts.
Fourteen days penitential fast for moral lapse of inmates of Farm.
Indian Relief Act is passed.
Sails for England, en route to India.
Raises Indian Volunteer Corps
Volunteer Corps on duty.
Offers satyagraha over administrative interference in corps.
Sails for India.
Awarded Kaiser-i-Hind Gold Medal for Ambulance services.
Founds Satyagraha Ashram (later known as Sabarmati Ashram after the name of the river) at Ahmedabad.
Tours India and Burma, travelling 3rd class on the railways.
Successfully agitates against indentured Indian emigration; idea of making use of spinning-wheel to produce handmade cloth on large scale takes root in his mind.
Goes to Champaran (Bihar) to investigate conditions of labour in indigo plantations; arrested and later released; appointed by Bihar Government as member of committee set up to inquire into ryots grievances.
Takes up cause of textile labourers of Ahmedabad and fasts to secure amicable settlement of dispute; initiates satyagraha in Kaira District (Bombay) to secure suspension of revenue assessment on failure of crops.
Attends Viceroy's War Conference at Delhi and addresses it in Hindustani; subsequently tours Kaira District to raise recruits for army.
Signs Satyagraha Pledge to secure withdrawal of Rowlatt Bills.
Inaugurates all-India satyagraha movement; countrywide hartal.
Arrested on way to Delhi for refusal to comply with order not to enter Punjab; escorted back to Bombay; outbreaks of violence in several towns.
Jallianwala Bagh tragedy at Amritsar, troops firing on an unarmed crowd and killing over 400. Addresses public meeting near Sabarmati Ashram and declares three days penitential fast.
Confesses at Nadiad his 'Himalayan miscalculation' regarding satyagraha martial law declared in Punjab.
Assumes editorship of the Gujarati monthly, Navajivan, later published weekly in Hindi also.
Assumes editorship of the English weekly, Young India;joins non-official committee of inquiry into official excesses in Punjab.
Presides over All-India Khilafat Conference at Delhi.
Advises acceptance of Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms by Congress at Amritsar.
Leads deputation to Viceroy to press on British Government not to deprive Sultan of Turkey (who was also Khalifa of Muslims) of his suzerainty over Holy Places of Islam.
Addresses letter to Viceroy surrendering Kaiser-I-Hind Medal, Zulu War Medal and Boer War Medal.
Special session of Indian National Congress at Calcutta accepts his programme of non-co-operation to secure redress of Punjab and Khilafat wrongs.
Founds Gujarat Vidyapeeth at Ahmedabad.
Nagpur Congress session adopts his resolution declaring object of Congress to be attainment of Swaraj by the people of India by all legitimate and peaceful means.
Launches programme of enlisting a crore of members in Congress, raising a crore of rupees for Tilak Swaraj Fund and setting up 20 lakhs of charkas in the country in furtherance of national constructive movement.
Leads campaign for complete boycott of foreign cloth and lights monster bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay.
Invested with full dictatorial powers by Congress session at Ahmendabad.
Gives notice to Viceroy of intention to launch satyagraha campaign in Bardoli (Gujarat).
Following Chauri Chaura (U.P.) tragedy, in which 21 police constables and one sub-inspector were burnt to death by a mob, fasts for five days and abandons plan of satyagraha movement.
Arrested for sedition at Sabarmati and sentenced (March 18) to six years imprisonment.
Operated on for appendicitis in Sassoon Hospital, Poona (Jan. 12) and released on Feb. 5
Resumes editorship of Young India and Navajivan.
Begins 21 days’ fast for Hindu-Muslim unity.
Presides over Congress session at Belgaum.
Founds All-India Spinners Association.
Seven days vicarious fast for misdeeds of Ashram inmates.
Commences writing his autobiography, The Story of My Experiments with Truth.
Moves resolution at Calcutta Congress session in favour of Independence if Dominion Status is not granted by end of 1929.
At his instance Lahore Congress session declares that Swaraj in Congress creed shall mean Purna Swaraj (complete independence).
Appointed by A.I.C.C. as Congress Disobedience movement.
Addresses letter to Viceroy intimating his intention to break Salt law if Congress demands are not conceded.
Commences march to Dandi sea-beach, where he ceremoniously picks up salt (April 6).
Arrested and imprisoned without trial; hartal all over India; over 100,000 are jailed before close of year.
unconditionally released from prison.
Has series of talks with Viceroy resulting in Irwin-Gandhi Pact.
Sails for England as sole Congress delegate to Second Round Table Conference.
Attends sessions of Conference.
Leaves England for India.
Lands in Bombay.
Arrested and imprisoned without trial.
Commences 'fast unto death' in jail to secure abolition of separate electorates for Harijans in Communal Award.
Breaks fast on Government of India's acceptance of his demand regarding Harijans.
Founds the weekly paper Harijan, published in English and Hindi.
Commences at noon 21 days fast for self-purification; released unconditionally at 9 p.m.
Announces suspension of Civil Disobedience movement for six weeks and calls on the Government to withdraw its Ordinances.
Disbands Satyagraha Ashram.
Informs Government of Bombay of his decision to march from Ahmedabad to Ras with 33 followers to revive Civil Disobedience movement.
Arrested and imprisoned without trial.
Released and rearrested for breaking a restraint order.
Goes on fast on being denied facilities to carry on anti-untouchability propaganda.
Released and reasserted for breaking a restraint order.
Commences Harijan-uplift tour.
Announces decision to retire from politics from October I to engage himself in development of village industries, Harijan service and education through basic crafts.
Inaugurates All-India Village Industries Association.
Settles down at Sevagram, a village near Wardha in the Central Provinces, Making it his headquarters.
Presides over Educational Conference at Wardha and outlines his scheme of education through basic crafts.
Commences 'fast unto death' at Rajkot to secure Ruler's adherence to promise given to reform administration, and ends it on March 7 on Viceroy's intervention.
Meets Viceroy by invitation in connection with war situation.
Sanctions individual civil disobedience; suspends Harijan and allied weeklies following official demand for pro-censor-ship of reports and writings in Harijan on the subject of satyagraha.
At his own request is relieved of his leadership of Congress by Working Committee.
Restarts Harijan and allied weeklies.
Meets Sir Stafford Cripps in New Delhi; later declares Cripps proposals to be a 'post-dated cheque'.
Appeals to British Government to quit India.
Addresses A.I.C.C. session in Bombay on implications of Quit India resolution.
Arrested and interned in Aga Khan’s Palace at Poona.
Death of Mahadev Desai, Gandhiji's personal secretary, from heart failure, in Aga Khan's Palace.
Corresponds with Viceroy and Government of India regarding disturbances.
Commences 21 days fast, which he breaks on March 3.
Kasturba Gandhi dies in Aga Khan's Palace.
Carries on talks with M. A. Jinnah regarding Pakistan.
Presentation of purse of 110 lakhs of rupees (@£ 8,25,000) for Kasturba Memorial on occasion of 75th birthday.
In a statement regarding the ensuing San Francisco Conference says that peace is impossible without equality and freedom of India. Also demands a just peace for Germany and Japan.
Lays foundation stone of C. F. Andrews Memorial Hospital at Santiniketan.
Tours Bengal and Assam.
Tours Southern India for anti-untouchability and Hindustani propaganda.
Revives Harijan and allied group of weekly journals.
Participates in political talks with Cabinet Mission in Delhi.
In Simla; Simla Conference in session; deliberations prove infructuous.
Cabinet Mission announces Plan.
Discusses Plan with Cabinet Mission.
Considers Plan best document produced by British Government under circumstances.
Returns to Delhi.
Refuses to enthuse over Allied victory as not being 'victory of truth over false-hood'.
Viceroy interviews Gandhiji, moots proposal of Coalition Government at Centre.
Cabinet Mission negotiations discontinued; Viceroy proposes Interim Government.
Congress Working Committee decides to accept Interim Government scheme.
Attends Working Committee meeting. Gandhiji is seen by Cripps.
Advises Congress not to enter Interim Government, but only Constituent Assembly.
Meets Cabinet Mission.
Leaves Delhi for Poona; attempts made to derail train en route.
Addresses A.I.C.C. meeting at Bombay; Congress accepts Cabinet Mission plan of May 16.
Jinnah threatens sanctions of 'Direct Action'.
Viceroy announces invitation to Congress to form provisional Government.
The 'Great Calcutta Killing'.
Viceroy Wavell broadcasts Plan.
Gandhiji cables warning to British Government against repetition of 'Bengal tragedy'; also writes to Wavell.
Interim Government formed.
Has interview with Wavell.
Jinnah's 9-point demands conveyed to Congress.
Muslim League agrees to enter Interim Government.
Leaves for Calcutta. Riots break out in Bihar.
Leaves for Noakhali; issues statement on 'Partial Fast'.
Noakhali tour begins.
Starts tour without party.
Completes month-long sojourn at Srirampur.
At Noakhali, says: "I ma being tested through and through..."
Jawaharlal Nehru calls on Gandhiji, who says: "My reason wholly supports my heart".
Says: "All around me is utter darkness".
Leaves Srirampur on walking tour.
In Bihar, touring riot-affected areas.
Leaves Patna for Delhi.
Mountbatten, new Viceroy, arrives in Delhi.
Gandhiji addresses Asian Relations Conference in Delhi.
Issues with Jinnah joint appeal for communal peace.
Congress Working Committee accepts Partition in principle.
in interview, Gandhiji denies that communal division of India is inevitable.
Leaves Bihar for Delhi.
Declares peace must precede partition, he would not be party to India's vivisection.
Viceroy's Partition plan revealed; Congress Working Committee conveys acceptance.
Indian leaders broadcast on Mountbatten Plan.
Gandhiji writes to Mountbatten, with Pakistan conceded, to persuade Jinnaj to amicable settle all outstanding points with Congress.
Addresses Congress Working Committee.
Independence of India Bill' passed.
Appeals to Princes to regard people’s paramountacy as a privilege.
Hails following day as one of rejoicing for deliverance from, British bondage; but deplores Partition. Pakistan is born.
Hindu-Muslim fraternization in Calcutta.
Hails 'Miracle of Calcutta'.
Considers Calcutta peace nine-day's wonder, decides on fast.
Is mobbed in Calcutta house; gives up idea of Noakhali visit. Peace efforts intensified.
Leaves Calcutta for Delhi; commences daily visits to riot-racked areas.
Pakistan raiders invade Kashmir.
Kashmir accedes to Indian Union.
Criticises Churchill's 'holocaust in India'. Statement.
Indian troops enter Junagadh
Junagadh accedes to India.
Defends Junagadh's accession to India.
Pleads for amicable settlement between India and Pakistan.
India refers Kashmir dispute to U.N.
Decides to fast for communal peace in Delhi; Mountbatten fails to dissuade Gandhiji.
Enters 'danger zone'. Hails Indian Cabinet's decision to release Pakistan dues of Rs. 550 million. Fast continues for establishment of communal peace.
Doctors warn fast must be ended. Central Peace Committee formed, decides on 'Peace Pledge'.
Peace Committee signs, presents 'Peace Pledge' to Gandhiji, who breaks fast.
Bomb explodes at prayer meeting.
Visits Mehrauli Muslim Fair.
Angry refugees ask Gandhiji to retire to the Himalayas.
Drafts constitution of a Congress transformed into Lok Sevak Sangh.
Is assassinated on way to evening prayer.